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Yellow Pigment Is A Very Valuable Natural Food Color

Safflower is an important Chinese herbal medicine, for the Compositae dry flowers, containing safflower red pigment and safflower yellow pigment two colors, the temperature, spicy, with Huoxuetongjing, Quyu pain, lower cholesterol, Blood pressure and other effects, mainly used for irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, closed, bruises, coronary heart disease, infectious hepatitis and other diseases have a certain effect. Safflower yellow pigment is extracted from the safflower petals of natural yellow pigment for chalcone compounds. Safflower yellow pigment is approved by China to allow the use of natural edible pigment, has been included in GB2760-1996, for the national new drugs. It has been found that safflower yellow pigment is not only a valuable natural edible pigment, but also has the advantages of bright color, high temperature resistance, high pressure resistance, low temperature resistance, light resistance, acid resistance, resistance to reduction and antimicrobial, but also expansion of coronary artery, Anti-oxidation, protection of myocardium, lowering blood pressure, immunosuppression and brain protection and other pharmacological functions.

Safflower yellow pigment is yellow or brown powder, the melting point of 230 ° C, soluble in water, dilute ethanol, dilute propylene glycol, almost insoluble in ethanol, insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, grease, chloroform and other organic solvents, Precipitation, can be activated carbon adsorption, the color varies with the pH. In the pH value of 2 to 7 in the acidic solution does not change color, yellow, alkaline solution was yellow orange, good light resistance, heat resistance slightly worse. Safflower yellow pigment is water-soluble pigment, the aqueous solution was bright yellow, does not produce precipitation; its toxicity is very low, strong coloring, color stability; in the safflower content of 20% to 30%.

Safflower yellow pigment stability, mainly in its water-soluble, good thermal stability, metal ions on its impact and so on. The changes of safflower yellow pigment under different temperature, acid - base environment, metal ion, illumination and so on were studied. The results showed that safflower yellow pigment soluble in alcohol, acetic acid and other strong polar solvents, insoluble in ethanol, acetone and other weak organic solvents. Experiments show that safflower yellow pigment extraction solvent should be used in 40% acetic acid solution; light or sun on safflower yellow pigment have a certain impact, but not by the impact of ultraviolet light; pH3.4, 100 e heating 1 h The results showed that the effect of Fe, Mg, Fe, Zn, Al and Pb on the Fe (superscript 3 +) was higher than that of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Al and Pb. Zn ions have a significant effect on the pigment, the other ions have little effect on the pigment; salt, sucrose, H2O2, ascorbic acid, sodium sulfite and so on. The other ions have no effect on the pigment. The concentration of the solution in addition to sodium sulfite has a slight subtractive effect, sugar, salt, etc. have different effects; safflower yellow and lemon yellow has a similar color, and safflower yellow pigment color is more soft than lemon yellow. The biological characteristics and genetic stability of 22 safflower varieties under different ecological conditions and different growth stages were studied. The experiment was carried out by using water as solvent, purified by ultrasonic method, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the content of safflower yellow pigment. The results showed that the content of yellow pigment in different varieties of safflower was in the range of 28.10% ~ 45.80%, and there was a significant difference (P <0.01). The quality was mainly determined by genetic factors. The dyeing properties of safflower yellow pigment were discussed. It was found that the yellow pigment with the presence of the glycoside was water-soluble and soaked in water. The thermal stability was also good for dyeing the silk fabric. The dyeing temperature should be 90 e and the p H value is 4 to 5 5. It can be seen that the pigment is suitable for coloring processing of acidic foods, can be used as a soft drink, cold drinks, wine, candied fruit coloring. In use should pay attention to acidity, temperature, try to avoid contact with iron, control the amount of zinc ions can make safflower yellow pigment to maximize the role.

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