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A Brief History Of The Development Of Organic Pigments

Human use of pigments, has a long history. Archaeologists have found that humans have begun to use colored inorganic matter 30,000 years ago, such as the use of Hercules and Hematite as a "color material" for painting purposes, which can be made from ancient frescoes , Rock paintings are proven. This is used as a "color material" of He Shi, hematite, in fact, is the most primitive inorganic pigments.

When the use of organic pigments from when, it is difficult to determine the exact age, because the ancient organic pigments are easy to fade, it is difficult to retain so far. In ancient times, as a supplement to inorganic colorants, humans used botanical coloring materials (such as madder, indigo) or animal color (such as Tyler, from a conch). Since the colorants were extracted from the animals and plants at that time, the biologists called them Pigment, the words of today's pigments. The word Pigment comes from the Latin Pigmentum, which is the pigment extracted from the roots of a plant called Pingere. Modern scientific research shows that the colored components of madder are mainly alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone), and the colored component of indigo is mainly indigo (Indigo). These two substances or their derivatives are still used as pigments. Of course, from today's point of view, these organic materials are soluble, they should be classified as dyes rather than organic pigments, but at least they are the origin of modern organic pigments.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, the large-scale rise of synthetic dyes, which laid the foundation for the synthesis of organic pigments. Organic pigments are accompanied by the development of the dye industry and gradually developed.

In 1856, the British chemist prepared the first synthetic dye, that is, aniline violet (Mauveine); 1858, the German chemists found an aniline diazotization reaction, in 1861 found an aniline diazonium salt and aromatic amines or aromatic After the coupling reaction, began to synthetic dyes and organic pigments.

So far, the development of organic pigments in accordance with the time process can be divided into the following three stages:

1) from scratch

At this stage to synthesize from the Rosso red starch pigments to phthalocyanine pigments, pigment chromatography is basically complete. Organic pigments varieties began to replace inorganic pigments varieties;

2) the advent of high-performance organic pigments

With the rapid development of polymer materials and the increasing quality of life requirements of the people, the application of colorants also put forward higher requirements, which led to the development of various types of new organic pigments and production. At this stage, there have been some high-performance organic pigments (High Performance Pigment, referred to as HPP). These pigments are mainly yellow, orange, red and purple, their light fastness, weather fastness, heat fastness and resistance to migration are very good;

3) to improve the production process and the application of diversification

During the period from 1980 to 1990, the development of organic pigments began to slow down. During this period, the new pigments came out less and there were only a large variety of industrialized varieties, namely red pigment --- DPP pigments. After 1995, the emergence of new structural organic pigments is almost no, because the EU out of a REACH regulations, the listing of new chemicals to implement a very strict policy, need to do a series of tests, the cost of more than 550,000 euros. This is a serious blow to the enterprise (especially fine chemical enterprises) research and development of new products, the enthusiasm of the industry's technology development focus shifted to the following aspects:

To seek more rational synthetic route, change the raw materials, reduce the cost of existing varieties of production to solve or reduce the pollution of the environment;

Such as: phthalocyanine pigments for use in optical disks, cyanine dyes, azo pigments; phthalocyanine pigments for laser printing, electrophotography, perylene pigments; and phthalocyanine pigments for use in optical discs, in particular for high-tech applications, A perylene pigment for solar heat storage, DPP pigments for color liquid crystal filters, and the like;

The development of new application formulations such as ink for digital inkjet printing, pre-dispersed pigments for coloring acrylic fiber stock, and pigments for temporary hair coloring gums.


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